ɽɮɹ] ɮ`b ʴɦM V {xǮSx {ִS xZɨEɱx ƺlxi ɨʴɹ] i. ɮ`b ʴɦMS {ɮh Vɱi ɨʴɹ] +ɱ ˽M ={ʴɦM iiEɱx ʥ]Ҷ Vɴ]S ʴn Mɺ Mx +ɱ ֦M xZɨ ƺlxS Ҩɮұ M hx ˽M l iiEɱx xZɨS ɹE `h i. ɹE iEb,ɹES nJx,Pbn ɹES ={ɪMɺ` VxɴɮS nJx i. <..1803 v ]{ ֱix-ɮ` vn <. 1857 v xM{֮E ɱ f< lұ Vxix {ʽ +x֦ɴɱ +ɽ. + ɮ` xx <OVS E䱪 ɶɺ |iEɮ ɽi lұ Vxi I +ɽ. ˽M l +ɱ䱪 ɹE UɴhҨֳ ɽ {ִ {ɺx pɤn Vi BE ɽiS ɽ hx |ʺvn {ɴɱ +ɽ. ɹE `h +ɱ䱪 ɽiұ ɺix {ִ {ɺx |Sʱi +ɱ {ɱ]x, ʮɱ, iJx, {x{֮, n Vɮ xɴ +Vɽ |Sʱi +ɽi.

ijkɮ Eɳi 1956 ɱ Zɱ䱪 V {xǮSxi ɮ`b ʴɦM iiEɱx Ƥ< Vɺ Vbhi +ɱ. 1 1960 V ɽɮɹ] VS xɨi Zɱxiɮ iiEɱx {ɮh VɱS M ɽɮɹ] VS P]E Zɱ. ɽɮɹ] VS 39 v{x nx hV nxE 1 1999 V +Eɮx ʴɺih +ɱ䱪 {ɮh VɱS ʴɦVx Ex ˽M Vɱ xɨh Ehi +ɱ +ɽ.